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Energy & Industry Division
Industrial and environmental inspection, vendor inspection, technical assistance, non-destructive testing (NDT) and technical staffing for all type of industries.
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Design, engineering, testing and homologation services for the automotive industry worldwide.
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Radiographic Testing (RT)

INTRODUCTION
Radiographic testing (RT) is one of the most fundamental volumetric testing methods performed in the industry. Radiography encompasses a wide range of techniques from film usage to digital, with digital techniques ranging from computed (CR) and direct (DR) to real-time radiography (RTR) and computed tomography (CT). All of these techniques involve either X-ray or gamma radiation generated from a tube or from an isotope of Iridium-192, Selenium-75 or Cobalt-60. RT has the ability to penetrate wide ranges of material with varying densities to detect internal defects in weld quality; profile in-service systems to determine if corrosion or erosion is present; evaluate castings for fabrication flaws or foreign objects; and detect damage in composites.
THE Applus+ SOLUTION
Applus+ is a world-leading authority in radiographic testing, a technique ideally suited to the detection of imperfections in materials throughout industrial operations and applications. Radiographic testing is used to meet the challenge of identifying issues across production assets and equipment applications in the oil and gas industry. 
 
Additionally, Applus+ leads the field in advanced technology with its own R&D laboratories, worldwide resources and geographical coverage. We work closely with industry leaders and subject experts.
 
Applus+ has developed the Rayscan System, a real-time digital radiographic inspection system capable of completing a full inspection of a production pipe in a single scan rotation. This same technology has transcended into Rayscan Tankscan, the real-time digital radiographic inspection system that can complete a full inspection of LNG storage-tank welds in a single scan, producing a high-quality image of each weld.
TARGET CUSTOMERS
Radiography has a number of applications within the industry. Whether it be conventional film or digital, RT can be used to verify weld quality or to profile in-service piping to determine the presence of corrosion under insulation (CUI), flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) or remaining wall thicknesses.
 
RT has been employed in several industries and for a variety of inspection types, including:
  • Petrochemical
  • Nuclear
  • Fossil
  • Chemical
  • Military
  • Aerospace
  • Foundries
  • New construction
  • Post-construction
  • Corrosion monitoring
  • LNG fabrication
 
Radiography is also a widely used volumetric-testing technique, and Applus+ is a time-tested provider of this service in the industry.
KEY CUSTOMER BENEFITS
Advantages of using digital radiography:
  • Direct results after scanning on site
  • Large dynamic range
  • Dose reduction (up to 90% in some cases)
  • Smaller boundaries
  • No use of chemicals or darkrooms
  • Use of image-processing tools
  • Digital archiving, reporting and transporting
  • Significantly fewer re-shoots
  • Digital images
  • Increased probability of detection
 
Advantages of Rayscan/Tankscan Real-Time Digital Radiography over conventional film radiography:
  • Cost efficient; no consumables
  • Quick cycle-time
    • High scan-speed
    • No development time
    • Direct interpretation and feedback
  • Quality equal to/better than film
  • Increased safety
    • Reduced radiation required
    • Collimated X-ray beam
    • Shielded scanner design
  • Environmentally friendly; no chemical waste management required
  • High suitability for:
    • Pipes with diameters of 5cm to 142cm (2” to 56”)
    • Thin walls
    • Austenitic materials
    • Dissimilar welds
    • CRA pipelines
    • Root and hot-pass inspections
Conventional techniques
Radiographic Testing (RT) is one of the most fundamental volumetric-testing methods performed in the industry. Film radiography, which utilises either X-ray or gamma radiation generated from a tube or from an isotope of Iridium-192, Selenium-75 or Cobalt-60, has been the most widely used application for volumetric inspections. RT has the ability to: penetrate wide ranges of material with varying densities to detect internal defects in weld quality; profile in-service systems to determine if corrosion or erosion is present; evaluate castings for fabrication flaws or foreign objects; and detect damage in composites.
Advanced techniques
Computed radiography (CR) is a filmless process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR provides the ability to view radiographic images from a computer using the same conventional radiography exposure equipment. It eliminates the need for chemical processing, uses lower source strength, enables smaller boundaries and yields quicker results. Images have greater definition and higher resolution, allowing for greater detail in evaluation. Data storage and retrieval could not be simpler and information can be shared via the internet.
Digital radiography or direct radiography (DR) is the next evolution in inspection of in-service systems with minimal downtime or preparation. DR has the ability to inspect pipelines during operation without having to remove insulation and with no temperature restrictions. This is a filmless radiographic technique that requires no processing, is wireless and yields results instantaneously. Data storage and retrieval could not be simpler and information can be shared via the internet.
The RTD Rayscan and Tankscan are real-time digital radiographic (RTR) inspection systems. RTR is an advanced technology utilising direct radiography (DR) techniques. It involves the filmless conversion of data into a high-resolution digital image of the entire weld and can be performed within a single scan. Rayscan can be used as either double-wall single image (DWSI) or single-wall single image (SWSI) and can inspect pipes with a diameter range from 5cm to 142cm (2" to 56") as well as horizontal and vertical tank weld seams.
Radiographic Testing
 
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